AI first git its feet on the ground in the early 1950's from a man named Norbert Wiener. Wiener was the first to make the connection between human intelligence and its applications in a technological world. He discovered what is known as the feedback theory. The best explanation to the feedback theory is to think of a thermostat. It controls the temperature of the environment by taking the actual temperature and adding or subtracting heat to accomplish its target temperature. Later in 1957, John McCarthy decided to hold a conference in Vermont that brought many experienced minds in similar fields together for a brainstorming session. This conference formed the known study of Artificial Intelligence.
As many of you reading have probably already thought if we discovered the possibility of AI in 1950 why haven't we made it a reality now? The answer to that is simply that to re-create the human mind would be impossible. A more in-depth answer is that a human mind contains way too many neurons and neural pathways to create everyone is just unheard of. The amount of material and money it would take is beyond what most would want to invest. This, however, doesn't mean AI hit a road block; in fact we realized that we could make AI do small chunks of cognitive thinking and allow for it to learn. An example of this is to think of playing chess on your computer. Depending on the difficulty you set the game, the computer has the potential to "think" 126 moves ahead. A normal chess master can often only think 3-4 moves ahead. How can you win? You win because you are the variable in the computers equation. By making a move the computer didn't anticipate you change the way the computer needs to rethink in its evaluation of the game and from it the computer learns how to react if the situation reoccurs. That's all it can do. That's is all it can do. The computer won't think of anything else, but chess.
In the video below, a robot attempts to solve a Rubik cube in about a minute.
As you no doubt have noticed from the video, mental intelligence is not the only thing AI has done. Besides having computers act as a second mind, like accident avoidance system in your car, they also have the ability to move and act as if they were human themselves. As a human we understand that we don't just think, but act! We can run, wave our hands, ride a bike (assuming you were taught to), and many other active motions. This is something many scientists involved in AI have thought about. The next video shows the most advanced robotics involving movement AI has to offer.